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How do cross sectional and longitudinal studies differ in terms of changes in intelligence as individuals age?

How do cross sectional and longitudinal studies differ in terms of changes in intelligence as individuals age?

Whereas cross-sectional studies mostly find age-related U-curves in cognitive abilities, longitudinal studies often observe that performance levels are maintained or even increase with aging (Salthouse, 2009;Schaie, 2013). …

What is the primary problem with interpreting the results of cross sectional studies of intelligence?

Cross-sectional research may be misleading because each cohort has its own unique history of life experiences and because in each generation, academic intelligence increases a result of improved educatoin and health.

Why are there different age relations in cross sectional and longitudinal comparisons of cognitive functioning?

For example, because the people at each age in cross-sectional comparisons are different, observed differences in cognitive functioning could be attributable to characteristics of the individuals other than age, such as quality or quantity of education, exposure to different cultural experiences, etc.

How do cross sectional and longitudinal studies differ?

Longitudinal studies differ from one-off, or cross-sectional, studies. The main difference is that cross-sectional studies interview a fresh sample of people each time they are carried out, whereas longitudinal studies follow the same sample of people over time.

What is most likely the biggest problem with longitudinal research group of answer choices?

The main challenge of using a longitudinal design is the cost in time and resources. These studies are much more expensive and take much longer to conduct than a cross-sectional study with the same number of participants. A second issue is the impact of repeated testing.

Why choose a longitudinal study over a cross-sectional study?

The benefit of a longitudinal study is that researchers are able to detect developments or changes in the characteristics of the target population at both the group and the individual level. Cross-sectional studies can be done more quickly than longitudinal studies.

What are the strengths and weaknesses of cross-sectional study?

4. Strengths and weaknesses of cross-sectional studies

  • Relatively quick and easy to conduct (no long periods of follow-up).
  • Data on all variables is only collected once.
  • Able to measure prevalence for all factors under investigation.
  • Multiple outcomes and exposures can be studied.

What is a major disadvantage of cross-sectional research?

A disadvantage of cross-sectional research is that it just tells researchers about differences, not true changes. Also, researchers have to worry about whether change is due to age/development or generational/cohort effect. Those are called cohort effects and they could affect our measurements.

Why is cross-sectional bad?

Particularly prone to bias; especially selection, recall and observer bias. Case-control studies are limited to examining one outcome. Unable to estimate incidence rates of disease (unless study is population based). Poor choice for the study of rare exposures.

Why do a cross-sectional study?

Unlike longitudinal studies, which look at a group of people over an extended period, cross-sectional studies are used to describe what is happening at the present moment. This type of research is frequently used to determine the prevailing characteristics in a population at a certain point in time.

Why do we use cross-sectional survey in research?

Cross-sectional designs are used for population-based surveys and to assess the prevalence of diseases in clinic-based samples. These studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive. They may be conducted either before planning a cohort study or a baseline in a cohort study.

What level of research is a cross sectional study?

Cross sectional study designs and case series form the lowest level of the aetiology hierarchy. In the cross sectional design, data concerning each subject is often recorded at one point in time.

Do cross sectional studies have independent variables?

Cross-sectional studies allow the researcher to look at one independent variable as the focus of the cross-sectional study and one or more dependent variables.

Can an observational study have an independent variable?

In other words, observational studies have no independent variables — nothing is manipulated by the experimenter. Rather, observations have the equivalent of two dependent variables. In a controlled experiment, the investigator would randomly pick a set of communities to be in the treatment group.

Can cross-sectional studies show cause and effect?

While cross-sectional studies can provide information on things like the prevalence of a particular disease (how common it is), they cannot tell us anything about the cause of a disease or what the best treatment might be [72]. They are rarely used in studies of cancer causation or prevention.

What type of research is a cross-sectional study qualitative or quantitative?

Although the majority of cross-sectional studies is quantitative, cross-sectional designs can be also be qualitative or mixed-method in their design.

What is a good response rate?

A survey response rate of 50% or higher should be considered excellent in most circumstances. A high response rate is likely driven by high levels of motivation to complete the survey, or a strong personal relationship between business and customer. Survey response rates in the 5% to 30% range are far more typical.

How do you encourage employees to participate in a survey?

Increase Employee Survey Participation: How to Boost Your Response Rate

  1. Make a formal announcement.
  2. Communicate with an employee-first lens.
  3. Designate a specific time to take the survey.
  4. Hold managers accountable.
  5. Communicate the importance of high participation.
  6. Prioritize changes based on feedback.
  7. Follow up.

What is a good pulse survey response rate?


What is the average response to a survey?

33% as the average response rate for all survey channels, including in-person and digital (SurveyAnyplace, 2018) >20% being a good survey response rate for NPS surveys (Genroe, 2019) A realistic response rate range of 5% to 30%

What is a good Esat score?

To calculate your eNPS, you’ll need to subtract the percentage of detractors from the percentage of promoters. This will give you a score between -100 and 100. Any positive score is considered good. Scores below zero are a warning sign that you need to work on employee satisfaction.