## What is a reasonable choice for P?

reasonable choice for P? The probability of it correctly predicting a future date’s weather. The weather prediction task. The process of the algorithm examining a large amount of historical weather data.

## Which of these is a reasonable definition of machine learning * 1 point machine learning learns from labeled data machine learning is the science of programming computers machine learning is the field of allowing robots to act intelligently machine learning is the field of study that gives computers the ability to learn?

Option C is a reasonable definition of Machine learning. Because Machine learning is teaching or giving some example data to predict the model. More clearly making the computer learn something and predict the output is what makes it different from programming.

## What makes classification different from regression select all that apply?

Fundamentally, classification is about predicting a label and regression is about predicting a quantity. That classification is the problem of predicting a discrete class label output for an example. That regression is the problem of predicting a continuous quantity output for an example.

## When performing regression or classification Which of the following is the correct way to pre process the data?

15. When performing regression or classification, which of the following is the correct way to preprocess the data? Explanation: You need to always normalize the data first. If not, PCA or other techniques that are used to reduce dimensions will give different results.

## Which of the following is the best algorithm for text classification?

Linear Support Vector Machine is widely regarded as one of the best text classification algorithms. We achieve a higher accuracy score of 79% which is 5% improvement over Naive Bayes.

## What is the objective of backpropagation algorithm?

Explanation: The objective of backpropagation algorithm is to to develop learning algorithm for multilayer feedforward neural network, so that network can be trained to capture the mapping implicitly.

## Why is backpropagation important?

Backpropagation Key Points It helps to assess the impact that a given input variable has on a network output. The knowledge gained from this analysis should be represented in rules. Backpropagation is especially useful for deep neural networks working on error-prone projects, such as image or speech recognition.

## How does backpropagation algorithm work?

The backpropagation algorithm works by computing the gradient of the loss function with respect to each weight by the chain rule, computing the gradient one layer at a time, iterating backward from the last layer to avoid redundant calculations of intermediate terms in the chain rule; this is an example of dynamic …

## What will happen if the learning rate is set too low or too high?

If your learning rate is set too low, training will progress very slowly as you are making very tiny updates to the weights in your network. However, if your learning rate is set too high, it can cause undesirable divergent behavior in your loss function.

## Which is better Adam or SGD?

Adam is great, it’s much faster than SGD, the default hyperparameters usually works fine, but it has its own pitfall too. Many accused Adam has convergence problems that often SGD + momentum can converge better with longer training time. We often see a lot of papers in 2018 and 2019 were still using SGD.

## Does learning rate affect accuracy?

Learning rate is a hyper-parameter th a t controls how much we are adjusting the weights of our network with respect the loss gradient. Furthermore, the learning rate affects how quickly our model can converge to a local minima (aka arrive at the best accuracy).

## Is my learning rate too high?

If your learning rate is too high, your loss function will grow very fast. It’s not unheard of for a norm of gradient of a loss function to be several magnitudes higher than the weights matrix, which also doesn’t help the case.

## Does learning rate affect Overfitting?

A smaller learning rate will increase the risk of overfitting! There are many forms of regularization, such as large learning rates, small batch sizes, weight decay, and dropout.

## What does high learning rate mean?

In setting a learning rate, there is a trade-off between the rate of convergence and overshooting. A too high learning rate will make the learning jump over minima but a too low learning rate will either take too long to converge or get stuck in an undesirable local minimum.

## Does Adam Optimizer change learning rate?

Adam is different to classical stochastic gradient descent. Stochastic gradient descent maintains a single learning rate (termed alpha) for all weight updates and the learning rate does not change during training.

## Does learning rate matter with Adam?

Adam also had a relatively wide range of successful learning rates in the previous experiment. Overall, Adam is the best choice of our six optimizers for this model and dataset.

## Should I use learning rate decay with Adam?

It depends. ADAM updates any parameter with an individual learning rate. The learning rates adapt themselves during train steps, it’s true, but if you want to be sure that every update step do not exceed lambda you can than lower lambda using exponential decay or whatever.

## What is the default learning rate for Adam?

optimizers. schedules. LearningRateSchedule , or a callable that takes no arguments and returns the actual value to use, The learning rate. Defaults to 0.001.

## Can learning rate be more than 1?

But as input is usually normalized (0-1), a learning rate of 0.01 – 0.001 is often a good starting point. Higher learning rate means higher risk of overshooting the optimal minimum. Many of the optimizers do however automatically adjust the learning rate on the fly, and will therefore lower it through training.

## What is a good learning rate?

A traditional default value for the learning rate is 0.1 or 0.01, and this may represent a good starting point on your problem.

## What is the best optimizer keras?

Tensorflow Keras Optimizers Classes:

• Ftrl: Optimizer that implements the FTRL algorithm.
• Optimizer class: Base class for Keras optimizers.
• RMSprop: Optimizer that implements the RMSprop algorithm.
• SGD: Gradient descent (with momentum) optimizer.

## When should I use Optimizer?

Optimizers in machine learning are used to tune the parameters of a neural network in order to minimize the cost function. The choice of the optimizer is, therefore, an important aspect that can make the difference between a good training and bad training.

## How do I optimize keras model?

How to compress your Keras model x5 smaller with TensorFlow model optimization

1. Train Keras model to reach an acceptable accuracy as always.
2. Make Keras layers or model ready to be pruned.
3. Create a pruning schedule and train the model for more epochs.
4. Export the pruned model by striping pruning wrappers from the model.

## Which Optimizer is best for multiclass classification?

One of the most important things to notice when you are training any model is the choice of loss-function and the optimizer used. Here we want to use categorical cross-entropy as we have got a multiclass classification problem and the Adam optimizer, which is the most commonly used optimizer.

## How do you train multiclass classification?

In a multiclass classification, we train a classifier using our training data, and use this classifier for classifying new examples. Load dataset from source. Split the dataset into “training” and “test” data. Train Decision tree, SVM, and KNN classifiers on the training data.

## Why cross-entropy loss is better than MSE?

First, Cross-entropy (or softmax loss, but cross-entropy works better) is a better measure than MSE for classification, because the decision boundary in a classification task is large (in comparison with regression). For regression problems, you would almost always use the MSE.

## Can we use sigmoid for multiclass classification?

If the inputs of your classification task have multiple labels for an input, your classes are not mutually exclusive and you can use Sigmoid for each output.

## Which is better sigmoid or Softmax?

Softmax is used for multi-classification in the Logistic Regression model, whereas Sigmoid is used for binary classification in the Logistic Regression model. This is how the Softmax function looks like this: This is similar to the Sigmoid function. This is main reason why the Softmax is cool.

## Why is Softmax used for multiclass classification?

Thus, in softmax regression, we want to find a probability distribution over all the classes for each datapoint. We use the softmax function to find this probability distribution: Why softmax function? I think this functions is best explained through an example.

## How does sigmoid work?

Sigmoid Function acts as an activation function in machine learning which is used to add non-linearity in a machine learning model, in simple words it decides which value to pass as output and what not to pass, there are mainly 7 types of Activation Functions which are used in machine learning and deep learning.